- Asia is the largest continent in the world
- It covers about 30% of the total land surface of the earth
- It is situated entirely in Northern hemisphere except for some Indonesian group of islands
- In the north, Asia is surrounded by – Arctic ocean
- In the east, Asia is surrounded by -Pacific ocean,
- Western Asia – Mediterranean Sea
- Asia is separated from Europe by Urals, Caspian Sea, The Black Sea, Caucasus mountains, and strait of Dardanelles in the west.
- Separated from Africa by the Red Sea and Isthmus of Suez
- Separated from North America by Bering strait.
IMPORTANT COUNTRIES AND THEIR CITIES
- Shanghai: Premier port
- Nanking: textile hub
- Guangzhou: Lies at the mouth of Sikiang River. Famous for iron-steel, textiles, chemicals, handicrafts, and food processing industries
- Japan is the most industrialized country in Asia with little coal reserves but has highly developed hydroelectric power resources.
- Some important Islands of Japan: HONSHU, HOKKAIDO, SHIKOKU, KYUSHU
- Kyoto: Famous for traditional handicrafts and Climate Change convention (Kyoto Protocol)
- Kawasaki: Famous for Marine engineering, cement, and glassworks
- Yokohama: Thriving port with the major center for precision engineering
- Tokyo: Heavy electrical engineering industry
- Nagasaki: Important industrial town of Kyushu island
About SOUTH KOREA
- Capital – Seoul
- Ulsan – one of the Largest shipyards in the world
- Population: 5.17 crores (2019)
- Currency – South Korean Won (KRW)
- Capital – Jakarta
- Occupies most of the Malay archipelago.
- Lies between Indian and Pacific ocean
- Island group of Indonesia: Sumatra, Java , Borneo, Bali, Lesser Sunda land, Sulawesi, Timor and western half of New Guinea island
- IMPORTANT CITIES
- Jakarta: Important port – handles all imports to other domestic ports. Textiles, oil milling, rubber processing, steelwork, food processing’.
- Java: Separated from Sumatra island by Sunda strait
- Bandung: The first NAM conference was held here on September 1-6, 1961. It is a Volcanic plateau.
- It lies at the eastern end of Strait of Malacca.
- It occupies a relatively central position among the islands.
- The major naval base and major Centerport.
- It is one of the leading producer of oil
- Has world’s one of the biggest LNG plants
- It lies west of Pacific Ocean.
- 75% of its population lives on Luzon island.
- Its Capital city Manila is headquarters of International Rice research institute.
- Luzon in north and Mindanao in south are two large islands
- Capital city – Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh city are major centers for engineering and food processing industries.
- It is the only landlocked southeast Asian nation.
- Its Borders connect with Thailand, Myanmar, China, Vietnam, and Cambodia.
- Its Capital city Vientiane is located on the Mekong river.
- Malaysia lies between Thailand and Singapore.
- Ipoh: Famous for Tin mining and karst topography.
- It is located south of Laos between Thailand and Vietnam.
- Its capital city Phnom Penh is located on the Mekong river.
- Myanmar has a sharing border with India, Bangladesh,China, Laos, Thailand, and the Bay of Bengal.
- Famous for Buddhist temples “Pagodas” like Shwedagon Pagoda, Ananda Temple, Shwesandaw Pagoda and etc.
- Mandalay (the second-largest city in Myanmar) is on left bank of the Irrawaddy river.
- Capital city Yangoon (the largest city of Myanmar) (formerly known as Rangoon) is a leading port and famous for oil refining, steel, food processing industries.
- Thailand shares borders with Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia.
- It is known as rice bowl of Southeast Asia and the Land of white elephants.
- BANGKOK: situated on the Chao Phraya river. It is a leading industrial city famous for shipbuilding.
ASIAS’s IMPORTANT SEAS AND OCEANS
- PACIFIC OCEAN: Bering sea, Sea of Okhotsk, Yellow sea, South China sea, Java sea, Banda sea
- INDIAN OCEAN: bay of Bengal, Arabian sea, Red sea
- ARCTIC OCEAN: Kara sea, Laptev sea, East Siberian sea
IMPORTANT GULFS OF ASIA
- INDIAN OCEAN: Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman, Gulf of Aden
- PACIFIC OCEAN: Gulf of Tonkin, Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Bo Hai
IMPORTANT STRAITS OF ASIA
- Bering strait: It Separates Asia and North America; It connects East Siberian sea with the Bering sea
- Formosa(Taiwan) strait: It separates Taiwan and China and connects the East and south china sea.
- Malacca Strait: It separates the Malaya peninsula and Sumatra and connects the Java sea and the Bay of Bengal
- Sunda strait: It separates Java and Sumatra & connects Java Sea and Indian Ocean
- Strait of Hormuz: It separates UAE and Iran and connects the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf
- Strait of Bosphorous: It separates Asia and Europe and connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara
- Strait of Dardenelles: It separates Asia and Europe and connects the Sea of Marmara and Mediterranean sea
IMPORTANT MOUNTAINS OF ASIA
- Himalayan ranges lie in the North of Gangetic plains. It is an example of Fold Mountains. Mt.Everest is the highest peak Himalayan ranges.
- Karakoram Range lies north of the Himalayas. Godwin Austin(K2) is its highest peak
- Kailash range lies East of the Karakoram range in Tibet
- Kunlun shan lies north of Tibet Plateau and south of Tarim basin
- Tien shan lies north of the Tarim basin
- Altai lies north of Tien shan & South of Kobdo Plateau.
- Arakan Yoma: It is in western Myanmar continues through Andaman and Nicobar islands, Sumatra, Java, and other Indonesian islands
- Hindukush: Runs westwards of Pamir knot to Elbrus
- Elbruz: Hindukush joins Armenian knot at Caspian sea
- Sulaiman Mountain (or Kōh-e Sulaymān ): Extends southwards of Pamir along with Pakistan and Afghanistan
- Kirthar Mountains: Sulaiman takes the name of Kirthar in the south. It noted as the boundary between the Pakistani provinces of Balochistan and Sindh.
IMPORTANT PLATEAUS OF ASIA
- Ladakh plateau: An inter-montane plateau lies between the Karakoram and the Himalayas. It is a high-altitude cold desert plateau
- Tibet plateau: Located between Kunlun shah and the Himalayas. The largest plateau in the world (ht: 4250m)
- Yunan: Lies southeast of Tibet plateau
- Pamir: Located in the northwest of the Indian sub-continent. Meeting point for central Asian mountain ranges. It is known as the roof of the world with the highest altitude (4900m).
- Indo-china: Region of southeast Asia that extends over Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and Myanmar
- Shan: Lies between Pegu Yoma and Arkan Yoma in eastern Myanmar. Salween river flows through the region. Region important for tin, tungsten, lead, silver, and Ruby stone
- Arabian mountain: It is a tilted block extending over the entire Arabian peninsula.
- Plateau of Anatolia: Euphrates and Tigris river flows through this region. It is also known as Asia minor of Turkey.
IMPORTANT LAKES OF ASIA
- Lake Baikal: Located in Eastern Serbia. Source of Lena river.
- Lake Balkhash: Located in Kazakhstan. North of it is the Karaganda coal basin.
- Lake Van: It is the largest lake in Turkey. The highest density of salt content found here.
- Aral sea: It is located between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
- Dead sea: It is located in the west bank of Jordan. It is an example of Rift valley lake. Deepest points of Asia.
- Caspian sea: It is the largest lake in the world. It separates Europe and Asia.
Related: Important Lakes In India
IMPORTANT SURFACE FEATURES OF ASIA
- Manchurian plain: Formed by Amur river. Important cities located here are Ashan, Shenyang, Fushun
- West Siberian plain: Extends from the Urals to Yenisey river. One of the lowest lowlands.
- Rub-al-Khali: Known as empty Quarter. It is a large continuous sand desert of southern Saudi Arabia
- Dasht-I-Lut: Also known as the Barren desert of Iran
- Dasht-I-Kavir: The largest salt desert of the world in northern Iran.
IMPORTANT RIVERS OF ASIA
- East Flowing River (From North to South)
- Yangtze: It is the Longest River of Asia in Szechuan basin. Shanghai and Wuhan are located on it. Flows from Tibetan plateau to East China sea
- Hwang Ho: Known as China’s sorrow. Flows through loess land. Flows from Tibetan plateau to Gulf of Bohai
- Si Kiang: Best known for silk production. A fertile river basin flows from Eastern Yunan to south China sea
- North Flowing River ( west to east in Russia)
- Ob River: Flows from Altai mountains to Gulf of Ob
- Yenisey: flows from Tannuala mountains to Arctic ocean
- Lena: Flows from Lake Baikal to Arctic ocean