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Critical Philosophy of History

    According to Collingwood, the form of hypothetical historiography is the oldest whereas the form of analytical historiography is the modern one. Prof. Sheik Ali took the meaning of Analytical Historic Philosophy with a critical and succinct presentation of the past. This concept is a product of the scientific age. Earlier, history was considered as a part of philosophy and literature. Aristotle considered it less than poetry and Voltaire a ploy towards the dead past. But in the 19th century, Nebur and Ranke embellished it with scientific methods. Today its form has become analytical, in which it has become the main objective to consider the basic problems of history-thinking and to embellish it with scientific methods. The main problems of history today are how they are in the form of continuous knowledge? What is its position in terms of historical accuracy, fact, objectivity, explanation, logic, communism, etc.? These have been mentioned in place.

    Under Analytical Historic Philosophy, an attempt has been made to introduce generalization principles in history and give it a scientific form. In this, man has been considered as the subject of suitable study for man, but it has been felt that scientific study of man is therefore somewhat difficult; Because it is not possible to observe and observe the human actions of the past. The analytical philosophy of history has centered on the general form of historical knowledge. Efforts are being made to use history with the tools of logical analysis. The historian keeps on answering social questions in this, which is a sign of his continuous knowledge. The purpose of this form of historiography is the investigation of historical facts. It is not related to the whole of humanity but to a particular person and that is why it is called objective. The exact perception of the past is difficult, yet the evidence related to it is available in abundance in the present. Similarly, objectivity is the characteristic of scientific discipline and historians who believe in scientific disciplines also want to embellish history with objective features and bring it at par with science. If science is accepted as a whole in history, objectivity will be required in it too.

    Dadel says that no fact by itself is objective, but objectivity is imposed by separating the fact from the subject. In this way, there are also some problems of historical objectivity, which to be recognized means complex acceptance of the inclusion of objectivity in history, present society expects objective composition from historians and also wants an accurate presentation of the event in the form of historical interpretation.

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    Hempel has tried to prove that like human events in history can be done by scientific methods. Scientific Method Explanation By the physical world, they mean suitable evidence which can substantiate historical facts and can help in satisfactory conclusion. Like the scientist, the historian also takes recourse to the principles of generalization in the interpretation – this is the belief of its supporters, which is also justified. However, William Drey has criticized Hemple’s use of the scientific method in his historical interpretation and said that the historian only describes the events that happened. According to him the independence of India is a kind of historical interpretation. In analytical form, some scholars believe that scientific explanation of human events is not possible, while some say that historical interpretation is the mental reconstruction of the historian. Man works in the context of accepted values, but the analytical philosophical historian tries to keep himself away from the questions of values. In analytical historiography, historians have tried to present solutions to the basic problems of history through historical communism. Historical communism is an ideology through which the analysis of human actions is possible. It has three main elements – contingency, necessity and logic. The first is the element which makes the pace of history flow suddenly against the expectation. Regarding the second essential element, it should be understood that necessity is the mother of research. These needs have given a new turn to the pace of history from time to time. Thus the analytical philosopher historians use historical communism in historical interpretation. Thus, logic helps philosophers to formulate certain rules. Idealistic philosophers, psychologists and economists have tried to cover history with the veil of rules. Apart from the historical analytical nature, on the basis of country-religion-cultures, the nature of history can be depicted by giving many names, such as oriental history-philosophy, Greek history-philosophy, Rome history-philosophy, Christian history-philosophy, Medieval History – Philosophy, Modern History – Philosophy etc.

    The detailed explanation of each may not be irrelevant, but will be very detailed (because each form can be a book in itself), so it is mainly to understand about them that the history-philosophies that the doctor Buddha prakash has in his book And given the life-introduction of the historians of his time, they also explain a particular type of history-philosophy, as well as keep the history-writing-tradition of that place stable in those places-periods. Only by observing those traditions, we get knowledge of the then form of history-philosophy, and on the basis of that we can compare the present and express the possibilities of future Buddha light.

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