Ecosystem | Definition, Components, Functions, and services of Ecosystem

Definition of Ecosystem

  • The ecosystem is a self-regulatory system with biotic and abiotic components and their interactions in terms of the exchange of energy and matter.
  • It refers to physical space occupied by living organisms.
  • It is made up of biotic and abiotic components.
  • It undertakes the exchange of energy and matters through food chain.
  • It is a self-regulatory unit maintaining homo sapiens

Components of Ecosystem

There are two components of the ecosystem abiotic and biotic.

  1. Abiotic – include energy, rainfall, temperature, atmosphere, materials, latitude and longitude Etc.
  2. Biotic – are primary producers and consumers.

Functions of an ecosystem

There are 2 function of ecosystem:

  1. Flow of energy – It is done by the food chain and food web.
  2. Cycling of Nutrients – It is done by biogeochemical cycle. It is of two types:
    • Gaseous cycle – It includes water cycle carbon cycle nitrogen cycle oxygen cycle
    • Sedimentary cycle – sulfur cycle and phosphorus cycle

Ecosystem services

There are two types of services provided by ecosystem one is consumptive value and second is non-consumptive values.

  1. Consumptive value – include oxygen, food, medicine
  2. Non-consumptive values – include regulating services, Controlling Services, Supporting services and Cultural services

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