In human being, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each pair contain one chromosomes from mom and one from dad. It is found inside the nucleus of plant and animal cells. Each chromosome is made up of single molecule of DNA and proteins.
Functions of Chromosomes
- First 22 pairs are – Autosomes – It is named on the basis of sizes. They controls characters that are common for both male and female.
- 23rd pair – Allosomes/Sex Chromosomes. They control the sex related characters. They are of two types:
- X chromosomes – Female sex chromosomes. It controls female sex characters. ‘X’ is a larger chromosome than ‘Y’. It also controls some common characters like colour vision, Blood cloting, Brain development, etc. It is not possible to live without X chromosome.
- Y Chromosome – It is male sex chromosome. It controls male sex characters. ‘Y’ is a smaller chromosome than ‘X’.