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Global Gender Gap Index 2022 and India: WEF

    Global Gender Gap Index is published by World Economic Forum (WEF). It was first published in 2006. It measures gender parity on a scale from 0 (disparity) to 1 (parity). It ranks countries based on their status of gender equality in four dimensions:

    1. Economic Participation and Opportunity,
    2. Educational Attainment,
    3. Health and Survival and
    4. Political Empowerment

    Where does India stand in the Global Gender Gap Index?

    1. The number of countries involved is 153 in 2022 with India ranking 112th.
    2. India’s score has improved from 0.665 in 2018 to 0.668 in 2022.
    3. As per the Global Gender Gap Report, among the 153 countries studied, India is the only country where the economic gender gap is larger than the political gender gap.
    4. Only 1/4th of women, contrasted with 82% of men, engage actively in the labour market.
    5. As per this report, female estimated earned income is a mere 1/5th of male income.
    6. India ranks 18th (score of 41.1%) on the Political Empowerment subindex.
    7. For the past 50 years, India was headed by a woman for 20 years. But today, female political representation is low. Women make up only 14.4% of the parliament (122nd) and 23% of the cabinet (69th).
    Global Gender Gap Index 2020 And India

    Some of the significant initiatives undertaken by the Government of India to assure that women get equal rights, opportunities, and access to resources are as follows:

    1. Constitutional Provisions – Article 14, Article 15 (3), Article 39A, and Article 42 – to ensure gender equality.
    2. Legislative Provisions – Aimed at mandating women’s rights.
      • Minimum Wages Act, 1948
      • Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
      • Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 (Amended in 2017)
      • Equal Remuneration Act, 1976
      • Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostics Act (PCPNDT), 1994
      • Sexual Harassment of Women and Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013
    3. Schemes/Programmes: Schemes that are intended towards women Educational Attainment, Political Participation and Economic Participation & Opportunity are:
      • BetiBachaoBetiPadhao (BBBP)
      • Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK) – It is a micro-finance organization. It provides micro-credit at concessional terms to poor women for livelihood.
      • Mahila Shakti Kendra (MSK) – Empowerment of rural women for skill development and employment.
      • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandna Yojanas – Maternity benefit to pregnant and lactating mothers.
      • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana – Empowers BPL family women and protects their health by providing LPG gas cylinder free of cost
      • Pradhan Mantri Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana – Empowering girls by opening their bank accounts.
      • Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas (KGBVs) 
      • Capacity Building of Elected Women Representatives (EWRs) programme – enabling women to engage effectively in the governance processes.
      • Reservation of 33% of the seats in Panchayati Raj Institutions for women
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