Parliamentary Committees and Its Various Types in Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha

Parliamentary Committee means a Committee nominated by the Speaker or appointed by the House to study and understand various matters that cannot be directly managed by the legislature due to their volume or lack of expertise.

Broadly, there are two kinds of Parliamentary Committees:

  1. Ad hoc Committees – Formed for a specific purpose. 
  2. Standing Committees – Elected or appointed every year or periodically.

Estimates Committee

  1. It consists of 30 members all from Lok Sabha
  2. Its member elected every year from amongst Lok Sabha members on the basis of proportional representation.
  3. Term of Office – One year
  4. Its Chairman appointed by the speaker from the ruling party only.
  5. It acts as a financial guide.
  6. Minister cannot be elected as a member of the estimate committee.
  7. It reports on what alternatives and better policies can bring efficiency in the economy and in the administration.
  8. It suggests better form a budget.
  9. It looks for financial prudence.
  10. The Estimates Committee, constituted for the first time in 1950.

Public Account Committee (PAC)

  1. The Public accounts committee scrutinizes or cross-checking:
    • Report of Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India
    • Appropriation and Finance accounts of government
    • Ensure that public money is spent only according to Parliament’s decision and bring into notice any area of waste, extravagance, and loss-making expenditure of the government.
  2. The Public Account Committee (PAC) is assisted by the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India. CAG act as a guide, friend, and philosopher of the Public Account Committee.
  3. Membership – It consists of 22 members, comprising 15 members from Lok Sabha and 7 members from Rajya Sabha elected every year according to the principle of proportional representations and a Single Transferable system.
  4. Term of office – 1 year
  5. Minister cannot be a member of this committee.
  6. The Chairman of the Committee is appointed by the speaker of the Lok Sabha. By convention, the chairman of the public accounts committee is from the opposition party.
  7. It was set up under the Government of India Act 1919.
  8. Limitations of the public accounts committee are:
    • It conducts a post-mortem examination of accounts
    • Its recommendations are advisory and not binding.
    • It is not an executive body and hence cannot issue an order.
    • It is not vested with the power of disallowance of Expenditure by the department.
    • Only Parliament can take the financial decisions on its finding.

Committee on Public Undertaking

  1. committee on public undertaking examines the report of CAG on Public Sector Undertaking (PSU).
  2. It also sees whether the public sector undertakings are being run efficiently or not according to sound business practices.
  3. Membership – It consists of 22 members, comprising 15 members from Lok Sabha and 7 members from Rajya Sabha elected every year according to the principle of proportional representations and a Single Transferable system.
  4. Term of office – 1 year.
  5. The Chairman of the Committee is appointed by the speaker of the Lok Sabha from amongst its members from Lok Sabha only.
  6. . Minister cannot be a member of this committee.
  7. It was created in 1964 on the Recommendation of the Krishna Menon committee.
  8. Limitations of the committee on public undertaking:
    • It does not look into technical matters.
    • Its work working nature is post-mortem.
    • Its recommendations are advisory in nature and not binding.

Committee on Private Members’ Bills and Resolutions in Lok Sabha

  1. Committee on Private Members’ Bills and Resolutions in Lok Sabha allocates the time to all the bills introduced in Lok Sabha by private members.
  2. It even examines the constitutional amendment bills before they are introduced by the private member in Lok Sabha
  3. Membership – It consists of 15 members, all from Lok Sabha
  4. Chairman – Deputy speaker of Lok Sabha
  5. Rajya Sabha does not have any such committee.

Business Advisory Committee of Lok Sabha

  1. The Business Advisory Committee regulates the programs and timetables in Lok Sabha i.e. it allocates time for each job before Lok Sabha.
  2. Membership – It consists of 15 members including the chairman of the Committee.
  3. Chairman – Speaker of Lok Sabha
  4. In Rajya Sabha, both committees on private members and business advisory committee functions are performed by the business advisory committee in Rajya Sabha

Business Advisory Committee in Rajya Sabha

  1. In Rajya Sabha, both, the Committee on Private Members and Business Advisory Committee functions are performed by the Business Advisory Committee in Rajya Sabha
  2. Chairman – Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
  3. Membership – 11 member

Ethics Committee

  1. Ethics Committee formed separately in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
  2. It is formed to enforce the code of conduct on the Member of parliament.
  3. It examines the case of misconduct of MP’s and then recommend appropriate action.
  4. It is a Quasi-judicial body

Committee on Privilege

  1. It is a Quasi-judicial body in nature.
  2. It is found separately in Loksabha and Rajyasabha.
  3. It examines whether there has been a breach of privilege of the house of the Parliament by the parliamentarians or any other individual.
  4. It recommends action also,

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