The framers of the American Constitution were biased towards running the administration, keeping away from corruption. He believed that true national interests can be nurtured and supported only when people think, understand, and conduct themselves from a national point of view. Therefore the party system did not find any place in the constitution, but in due course, the same stone which was thrown by the constitution-makers became the main stone of the building.
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American Political Parties History
In a country with a vast area and population like the United States, the organization for public elections could have been done by political parties only, it has happened. The framers of the Constitution were ambitious to give a firm foundation to the country that had returned from the war of independence. Therefore, they used to shy away from defections. But as soon as the constitution came into force, questions began to arise in which differences were natural, and on the basis of those differences, parties began to stand up, which began to divide and bind people separately and in spite of not being unanimous on the question, a party aspiring for maximum cooperation started coming. This process was even more necessary and natural in the American system of governance.
Political Parties and its role
One of the main principles of American governance was the Separation of Power System and Checks and Balances. According to this theory, the three organs of the government have been kept separate and independent from each other as much as possible. But it is a matter of general information that these organs of government are like body parts. They cannot be kept completely separate from each other. This American system often leads to wrongful opposition and disharmony rather than spontaneous cooperation between the three organs. The party system has played the biggest role in curbing this effect and making it unfruitful.
The party system increases the spirit of cooperation between the President and the Administrator and thus they are able to do it with the support of the Senate. Due to this system, the color of party-based politics starts to build up in the entire administrative system, as a result of which the Congress, the work, the nationalism, and the bureaucracy begin to unite.
Whenever the presidential party and the majority party of the Congress separate, the governance system starts to falter step by step and ‘protests and obstacles’ remain the essence of politics. In this way, Congress and the executive have been connected with party organizations.
The party organization also made it easier for the US to regain its national base. Political parties have combined to make politics nationwide by alliancing small interests. For this reason, Beard has said that the basis of the politics of America is the programs of political parties and their key persons rather than the principle and nature of governance.
Party Organizations – The main objectives of political parties are:
- To educate voters about political questions,
- To create political enthusiasm and awakening among the voters and increase their loyalty.
- Try to include independents in your party and get more and more votes in this type of election and
- Gaining state power – Accordingly, organizations of parties are also formed on the basis of constituencies in America. Their supreme authority is organized on a federal basis and on the basis of precincts. In the midst of this, the organization of states, Congress areas, Legislature areas, counties, cities, towns, etc. and all are tied to each other according to the high relation.
Major function of a political parties in the United States
The supreme organization of each party is called the national convention of the party. The President and Vice President candidates are selected by these conventions.
- At the national level, each major political party has a National Committee. In this, a male and female representative comes from each state. Their member numbers are around 100.
- The position of the Chairman of the Committee who is the candidate of the President is important. He nominates the Chairman of the Committee and the members of the Executive Committee.
- Each national committee appoints several committees for its day-to-day work – such as the main executive and finance committees.
- On the days when the President or the members of Congress are elected, there is a lot of movement at the level.
Organization of states
Similarly, every state also has a statewide organization. It also has two organizations named Convention and Committee.
- The convention of each state is held every second year. Except for those states where the primaries have got the right to choose the candidates, these conventions only choose the candidates.
- Each party has a statewide committee consisting of representatives of state counties and cities.
- It is the committee that protects and enhances the interests of its party, determines policy and procedure, contests elections, and maintains proper relations with the national institutions of the party.
- Each state has several Congressional districts and counties and each county has some urban and some rural areas. Parties have different organizations in all these.
- The county committee is generally formed by the representatives of the neighborhoods located in it. Their number is not fixed. Somewhere there are 15-20 and more than 900 numbers.
- In the US, such county committees (including both) will be around 5 thousand.
From the point of view of political parties, localities are considered to be of great importance in local organizations and from many neighborhoods there is a committee consisting of two or more members who are elected by the party members of the locality. Where there is no committee, the work is run by a leader or captain. This captainly type of leader also plays an important role in committee neighborhoods.
When political parties prepare for elections, the most important part of that preparation is the selection of candidates. But a recreational new practice has developed in America, which is called primaries. According to this, voters themselves select candidates.
It has three forms:
(1) Open primary – which is in 14 states. Regardless of which party the voters belong to, they all participate in the elections.
(2) Closed primary – Only those voters who are related to it participate in it.
(3) In non-partisan-primary, candidates were adopted to find out his name and eligible persons without mentioning the party. But nowadays, unsatisfactory things are also being born in it, due to which the practice of nominating candidates by convention is gaining momentum in some states except primaries.