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Sources for the study of Ancient Egyptian History

    The ancient Egyptians have left behind countless physical remains. These relics provide information on the history of Egypt. For the study of history, the Egyptians resort to archaeological sources such as inscriptions, coins, buildings, pyramids, temples, sculptures, etc., and literary sources and foreign descriptions.

    According to very ancient Egyptian writings, the ancient inhabitants of Egypt came to Egypt by water route from Pant country 5000 years before Christ. According to the available distance and description, coconut, black pepper, sandalwood, ivory, etc. were available in abundance in that part of the country.

    Historians are now of an opinion that the development of the old Egyptians is from the same old race from which the present-day Indians, Iranians, and Europeans have developed. His unity with the Aryans or Indians is manifested in every aspect of his life.

    The Egyptian civilization has left innumerable specimens of literature and art on the walls of temples and tombs and on the vestments of mummies. All his literature is in verses and verses. , Egyptian literature was a part of religious worship. His poems are bound in rhythm and tone.

    For thousands of years, the Egyptians considered the Sun to be their greatest deity. The sun was worshiped in other countries of Asia. The Egyptian ruler Amen Hotep described the sun as the greatest symbol of the formless God, his greatest creation, and the greatest manifestation. , In Egypt, the sun was worshiped under many names and in many forms. The main names of these were ‘Aman’ and ‘Ray’. They had different temples. The Egyptians used to worship many gods and goddesses, in which the Sun had a special place.

    The Nile has a special contribution to the development and protection of Egyptian civilization. The Nile River flows out of the Sudan mountain range and falls into the Mediterranean Sea. From where the Nile flows into the Mediterranean Sea, the soil is released every year at its mouth. Most of the people live in this fertile area.

    According to Perry, “The first civilization developed on earth was in Egypt and from there the people of the world learned civilization.”

    About 200 years ago, the Egyptian civilization was not known. The credit for the discovery of this civilization goes to the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. When he invaded Egypt in 1798 AD, he had taken some historians for historical research, one of the prominent historians was Sham Polyo.

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    Napoleon’s companions found an inscription at the mouth of the Nile. Its meaning was understood in 1822 after a patient study. Only after this, the curiosity to know about the Egyptian civilization increase. In 1922, Harvard Carter discovered the secret gate of the Pyramid of Tutankhamen, through which the Egyptian civilization and culture came to be known.

    Other important sources of information about the Egyptian civilization are its ancient buildings and their ruins. The pyramids, sphinxes, tombs of the pharaohs, temples, Havelis, and other ancient archaeological remains are preserved here. No other ancient civilization has found such a large number of relics.

    Apart from these archaeological sources, the names of Menthol Herodotus and Diodorus are notable in literary sources. Information about its history is also obtained from the Egyptian literature accumulated on copper sheets.

    Literature

    During the Pyramid period, two parts of literature developed in Egypt – religious literature and moral literature. The typical religious works of this era are ‘Pyramid Texts’, in which a clear glimpse of the Egyptian civilization is given. In this, there is more related to the world after death i.e. transcendental life. Those mantras and prayers are also mentioned by which the supernatural life can be made pleasant and supernatural. That is why these images were inscribed on the walls of the pyramids of the pharaohs. They were dated from 2625 AD to 2475 BC.

    The main writers of moral literature are Imhotep, Kegemne, and Tah Hotep. These ancient Egyptian ministers recorded their experience and knowledge. These works are called ‘Niti-Granth’ or ‘Wisdom Literature’. Due to the utilitarian approach, the writers emphasized practicality and utility. He composed narratives related to Osiris, Sin, Hosta, etc., which are full of morality.

    Not much information is available about the literature of this period.

    Philosophy

    The philosophical views of the Friends are expressed in his work ‘The Drama of Memphis’, which was composed in 4000 BC. in Heliopolis priests. According to the available information, the Egyptians used to give priority to the god Ta and called him the heart and tongue of all the gods. Heart and tongue meant ‘knowledge’ and ‘reading power’ respectively. The center-point of philosophy in ‘Pyramid Granthawali’ is ‘the doctrine of Mother’. ‘Maat’ means justice or order.

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    The political philosophy of the Egyptians is that the world is not mortal and nature is not changeable. Therefore, he also considered the political structure of the country to be immutable. On the basis of this principle, the theory of the divine state developed in Egypt and the importance of the pharaohs increased.

    Science

    Pure science could not develop in Egypt. The Egyptians were only interested in those areas that were needed in practical life, but still. He knew the difference between the planets and the constellations, he had made amazing progress in some areas and after getting the knowledge of the correct position of the constellations, he had also made a map of the sky.

    The solar calendar was also invented during this period. → The main rules of mathematics – addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division were also acquired. He was also familiar with decimals but he had no knowledge of zero. He was familiar with the numbers from one to nine. He had come to solve the elementary problems of algebra and geometry. He had come to know the area of ​​a circle, semi-circle, and cylinder, but he did not know how to find the area of ​​a triangle, quadrilateral, rhombus, etc.

    The Egyptians had made progress in the field of medicine. Physicians had knowledge of pulse rate and temperature, but the surgical system could not be developed. The Egyptians protected the bodies of the dead by applying for various medicines, so it was considered irreligious to dissect. He also believed in magic and magic.

    Sculpture art

    The following types of idols were made in the Pyramid era.

    Stone sculptures

    Sculptures made of stone have the vision of vastness, solidity, and conservatism. In these stone sculptures, kings are shown in a sitting posture with their legs hanging on a chair, straightening the spine and keeping their hands on the thighs. See the best idols in a sitting posture. and Headset. The huge sphinx statue in front of the pyramid of K is incomparable. The idols were huge but emotionless.

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    The Egyptians considered the immensity of the statues to be a symbol of state pride and impermanence as a symbol of permanence.

    Metal sculptures

    Artists of this era also made human sculptures made of metal. Among them, the idol made by plating a copper sheet over the wood of Pepi I is very famous. The name ‘Shyen’s Statue’ can be taken in the high quality gold statue. Its eyes were made of flame glass. Its body made of copper sheet has been destroyed but the head made of gold is still preserved.

    Realistic sculptures

    The Egyptian artists made the images of ordinary people in a more realistic style. The ‘Idol of the Sheikh’ of this category is famous. The ‘clerical statue’ of the Lude Museum is important. The idols of this category, being realistic, seemed to be alive.

    Relief statues

    Relief paintings or murals were made in temples and mastwajs. Artists used to experience difficulty in showing the thickness or roundness of these paintings, but they were skilled in showing the length and width of the pictures. These artists used to show two events that happened at different times in a single picture. Due to these defects, there has been an unusualness in the relief pictures, but still, the pictures are visible. These paintings introduce the civilization and customs of ancient Egypt. Although artists used to paint their paintings with different colors, still the painting could not make much progress.

    Conclusion

    From the above perspective, it can be said that there are many pieces of evidence information about the history of ancient Egypt.

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