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Speculative Philosophy of History

    The birth of the hypothetical form is believed to be from Plato and Aristotle. The intention of the people of this ideology is to find the special meaning and goal of history in the context of historical events. In other words, if history has its own pace, tone and goal, it has to be brought to light. These thinkers had the purpose of presenting the project of history before the human society and believed that historical events are controlled by them, so even human efforts cannot stop them (projects and goals).

    Religious concepts of history confirm this ideology. By looking at the concepts of all religions like Greece, India, Christianity, Islam etc. Keep trying to understand. Among such people the names of Ibrakhaldun, Vico, Kant, Herder, Hegel, Marx etc. can be taken.

    The concept of Greek history in religious concepts is circular. According to this circular project, human happiness and sorrow are controlled. The Indian concept considers divine intervention in history, according to which there is a continuous incarnation of God for the end of sorrows and establishment of happiness. Christians also consider the divine will to be the main factor in historical events. This is also the belief of Islam.

    Even before the western thinkers, people like Ibrakhaldun had tried to bring to light the deep mysteries of history, Ibrakhaldun is called a unique historian of the world of Islam. First of all, he gave an elemental explanation of dynasties, empires, cultures and societies. Considering history as the biology of societies, he has said that its task is to classify, analyze, examine the bodies of dead societies, form their physiological constitution, investigate and research the process of growth, determine the trends and rules of their development and conquest. Is. In this way, Ibrakhaldun, who presented the organic and biological explanation of society, was a philosopher whose human outlook was very broad and he was against slavery, traditional system of governance and exploitation of traders. He was the first such historian, thinker and philosopher who analyzed the effect of geographical conditions on national history.

    The Vico of Italy considered the knowledge of history and nature to be of different types, considering history as humanized and nature as god. He has clarified the nature of history-philosophy and said that it is self-luminous, man-made, the fruit of human effort and thinking, as well as its form is derived from the creation of society and institutions. Its specific meaning can be understood only by direct study even without extraneous paradigms; Because history is the process which is embodied in the creation and development of language, customs, rules, governance etc. by human beings. It maintains integrity and order. History-speed had two sides – course and recourse. According to Vico, the ancient period was the era of courses and the medieval period of recourses.

    Kart believed that the process of the world was moving according to plan. Describing the nature of history, he says that history is not just a calculation of facts or a table of events, but it is a process of development more than that. History is also the process of moving from the visible world to the inner world. The inner element of man is intelligence, therefore history is the progress of intelligence as well as progress. The main goal of history is the spiritual development of man and the advancement of intelligence. Carts are always conscious of morality. They say that morality is embedded in the inner spiritual expansion of citizens. In this way, the nature of Kart’s history is visible in making progress and progress and clarifying the difference between progress and development.

    Herder has explained human history from the perspective of man and the solar system and has said that man is the creation of God, who is the best of all living beings because of being sharp in intelligence. But, man does not only reason, but also experiences and decides. According to Herder, experience should be given a place above logic and there should be insight to understand history. This is the nature of their history.

    Hegel, while giving a serious, original and epoch-making form to the philosophy of history, has prohibited it from considering it as a mere compilation of events and has said that the events which hide their causality within themselves, history should be related to them. This belief of his has been appreciated by Prof. Walsh and has said that in fact hypothetical historiography comes from Hegel, the founder of philosophy. Hegel’s historian does not merely determine the events, but takes to heart the internal tendencies. The web of subtle process of causation is universal and universal, hence history. It is the story of the entire progress of humanity, the story of all development from barbarism to civilization. The main trend of world history is the development of human freedom and the meaning of human freedom is the spread of moral intelligence.

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    Nation is the highest expression of moral intelligence. The ultimate truth is the universal soul, which has special qualities, discretion and freedom. According to Hegel, the process of nature is circular. There is repetition of facts. Its form remains the same. Nature is not developing and neither does it have a history. But history is not a cycle, but a line. There is innovation in its trends. The history-process is a divine project. Historical development is not accidental, but necessary. In this way the nature of Hegel’s history is related to dialectical idealism. It has also been called a beautiful combination of logical thoughts.

    According to relativists like Kapte, history is a social physics and historical knowledge can be increased through scientific method. According to him, there is no difference between the historical process and the natural process, so the use of scientific method is required for the investigation of history. They lay more emphasis on the compilation of relativistic facts and the formulation of general rules based on the generalization principle.

    Looking at the form in which Karl Marx, who was influenced by Hegeln and Relativists, has recognized the nature of history, it can be said that his idea was not only hypothetical, but also scientific based on relativistic theory. He considered the cause of every event in history to be economic. According to his dialectical materialistic interpretation, he has accepted the nature of history-philosophy. He finds a conflict in every interpretation and envisions revolutions. Their dialectics has been explained in detail elsewhere, so here a mere hint will suffice.

    Spengler has clarified its nature and said that history is the life-play of cultures. It is such a life science whose rules are unchanging and inviolable. Human society is subject to these rules and man cannot change them. Clarifying this, he says that the present Western civilization has reached its climax. We can mourn its future, but we cannot change it. The future of western civilization is bleak. Spengler’s interpretation of this form has some errors, yet his statements are still observable due to being thought-provoking and emotional.

    Twynby sheds light on the deep mysteries of history by studying the cultures of the world. He says from the perspective of religion and culture that the integration of the whole world, the coordination of religions and the resolution of economic disparities are the main trends of history. Creation is the basic process of cultural history. The creative level of culture is imposed on the flow level of society. The synthesis of these two results in a historical process. The establishment of the historical process is a society inspired by a specific culture which can be called ‘civilization’. By saying that history belongs to civilizations, Twainby has given a new format to history-philosophy by exploring a new level in history.

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    Thus we see that Spengler and Twainby adapted to the changing conditions of the 20th century, giving a new look to hypothetical history-philosophy. Similarly, more historians have given their views

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