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Theories related to the origin of the Harappa Civilization

    For this, some people have tried to study it on the basis of bones obtained, some have skulls and some have tried to study it on the basis of the remains of civilization, from which the following major conclusions have been obtained- Knowledge of four types of people living here on the basis of bones. Found- (1) Proto Australoids – They are very many in India, (2) The inhabitants of the Mediterranean Sea which are found in the coastal parts of Western Asia and Europe, (3) The Mongol race who live in the lower valley of the Himalayas and (4) Alpine who are a minority in India. Seeing these different types of mixed skeletons here, the wheelers consider it a civilization of mixed people. But this view is not valid because according to the anthropologists, the inhabitants of this place were of the same shape-type. No other regional culture can be associated with physical forms. Only one skull each of the third Alpine and Mongolian race has been found from here. Therefore, the question of the existence of these castes does not arise here. An attempt has been made to identify the creator of the clay sculptures on the basis of their head structure, which is unfair as neither the anthropologist nor the craniologist could have identified the characteristics of the skulls and made similar idols. Pigat, Elchin etc. have told them to be of Dravidian race who were the tribals of India. The Aryans put an end to the Dravidians of these urban civilizations, due to which they moved from here and settled in the south with their developed civilization. For this reason, the Aryan deity Indra, who destroyed these people, has been called Puranamveta or Purandar. According to the Rigveda, the Harpuhayas (=Harappan) were defeated by the resident Vrinchivanta (=reverted). The second Dravidian language, Brahmi, was spoken in its western border, Balochistan, where the Dravidians were settled before the Harappan culture, who were defeated and driven south by the Aryans. Even now their language Brahmi is used there. Sri Heras regards the Harappan script as the Proto-Dravidian script. But if the Harappans were Dravidians, then there must have been signs of Harappan culture in the Dravidian civilization of South India, which is not found. , Tool, wheeler, child, marshal etc. have described them as Sumerian because there is a white soapstone that has been found similar to Sumerian, but this idea is baseless. Because some similar materials are found in every civilization. Hence it has no basis for contemporaneity. Secondly, the Sumerian civilization was older than the Indus civilization. Both the civilizations were familiar with the use of urban, similar baked bricks and chalk and the use of scripts. Also in Sumeria, many sites of the Indus Valley have been found during the Sargon period. Still, Mr. Hall is of the view that it was the Sumerians who came to India. But seeing the difference in the town planning, script, type of utensils of both, it is believed that both of them were contemporary civilizations. Indus art and seals must have reached there only because of trade contacts. If it was influenced by the Mesopotamian civilization, why have its remains not been found in Iran, located in the middle? There is a mention of Sur-Asura conflict in Rigveda. If we assume that it was the Asura culture which was attacked and driven away by the Rigvedic Aryan-Suras and they fled west through Balochistan, then this problem will be solved according to Dr. Rajbali Pandey that the Brahmi language and the people of western civilizations were the builders of the Indus Civilization. Rather, the civilization there was shaped by the Asuras. But this idea is based only on logic. Swami Shankaranand considers them to be Vedic Aryans because the religion and tradition there is in line with the Vedic Aryan tradition. So far it was opposed on the ground that Aryans used horses and iron, which is not found in this culture, but due to the confirmation of horse from Surkotada and Lothal and the possibility of not getting it due to rusting of iron. The vote cannot be rejected. Marshall has recognized the difference between the urban idol-worshipping, iron-deficient civilization of Sindh and the rural, sacrificial and iron-using civilization of the Aryans. So who was the creator of this developed culture? cannot be stated clearly. But Dr. V.P. Silha’s view is more likely that some Aryan gang from the western hill region came to the Indus region and spread this civilization in 3000 BC. Have started doing it. But this objection is made on it that ever since this civilization was found, it was only in its developed form. But it is worth mentioning here that he was not a copycat but had a creative talent. Along with this, it is foreshadowed from some centers from Sindh, Balochistan, Afghanistan, Gujarat etc. from where it must have developed.

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    This civilization obtained in seven levels in the excavation of Mohenjodaro itself proves its development. It is possible that when this civilization was broken due to the arrival of other Aryan gangs, then moving towards the east, clearing the forests, spread further in the environment of the growing rural culture. Due to this dispossession, he adopted the god of war, Rudra, gave importance to male dominance, adopted the use of iron and horses because war had to be done in the progress. According to Sir John Marshall, the date of creation of civilization, seven levels of civilization have been found here from the excavation of Mohenjodaro. Due to the presence of water under it, digging could not be done. But it is estimated that there may have been other levels of civilization here. In the excavation of the city of Troy in Rome, a level has been considered to be 1000 years. But due to the arrival of floods here every year, it would not have taken such a long time to change the level because the civilization continued to be destroyed by the floods. Therefore, estimating 500 years for one level, based on the date sequence of West Asian civilizations, its date is from 3250 to 2750 BC. It has been prescribed but it has also been said that it is only for Mohenjodaro and not for the whole civilization and that too only for the seven levels. Although this civilization must have been much earlier than this. cj Based on the seals of the Indus civilization obtained by Gad from Ur, its date-order is from 2350 to 1700 BC. have set. Mackay has started the Harappan Civilization in 3500 BC. And the end of Mohenjodaro in 2700 BC. Told the Fair Service its period from 2000 to 1500 BC. It’s guessed. Dr. D.P. Agrawal gave its chronology to 2300 BC. to 1700 BC have set. Dr. R. s. Sharma attributed its existence to roughly 2500 to 1800 BC. Supposedly. They believe that in the 18th century BC. In AD Harappa and Mohenjodaro had disappeared, but the Harappan culture of other places gradually eroded and survived for a long time. 1 The reason for so much confusion is the non-reading of the script written on the arrows. But the second means is to determine the time on the basis of materials obtained in contemporary civilizations. According to Wheeler, the most important place in this is that of Sumer. The Mumeri Akkad Empire emerged from the control of the Akkadians over Sumer. On this basis, ancient Sumerian history is divided into three sections—pre-state period (before 2350 BC), state period (2350 BC) and post-state period (after 2350 BC). Many similar artifacts have been found here from different levels of Indus Civilization, through which the period of Harappan Civilization can be clarified. The same fines received in both civilizations are 12. Of these, 7 belong to the state period, the pre-state period and 4 are of the post-state period. Therefore the date-order here is from 2400 to 1500 BC. is determined in between. Apart from the fines, the achievements of many Harappan civilizations are similar to the achievements of the Sargon period. Curved, straight, horizontal lines drawn with kidney-shaped dead bodies have been found equally in Tell-Asmar and Sindh. Pieces of brown stone and figures of mats made on it, a piece in the shape of a round door, with huts and windows built on it, have been found in Ur and Sindh. Similar coloration on pots has been found in Sindh and Mehi. Cut bead grains have been found alike in Harappa and Tell-Asmar. The saucer-shaped gold grains have been found in Mesopotamia and Mehi of the same type. It is clear from this that Harappa was related to Mesopotamia of the pre Sargon period. Its date is 2350 BC. has been considered before. Many clay pots and figures alike have also been found in Susa. Recently, the carbon date (C14) of some objects recovered from the level of Harappan culture at Lothal, Surkotada, Wada, Rojdi and Kalibanga has been investigated, on the basis of which about 2600 to 2500 BC. Their time is fixed. From all the above sources, the period of Indus Valley has been estimated on the basis of the date fixed and on the basis of fines found due to West Asian contact and with the help of materials found in the excavation. The general belief in this is from 2800 to 1700 BC. But the radiocarbon dates of the lower level are not known. Unless it is proved that the contact between Sindh and West Asian countries dates back to 2300 BC. Until then we can assume that 2300 BC. before and 1700 BC This was a civilization until after. On this basis, its date is 2500 BC. to 1500 BC It has been determined.

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