The non-cooperation movement (NCM) was launched from the platform of the Khilafat committee on 1st August 1920. It was the first mass movement in the history of India’s struggle against British rule. For the first time, the people participated in the anti-British struggles on a large scale.
Significance of the Non-Cooperation Movement (NCM)
- The launching of the non-cooperation movement (NCM) transforms the character of national struggle completely.
- The peasant participated in the National struggle for the first time. Students, women, and the working-class also participated in large numbers.
- The launching of the non-cooperation movement greatly radicalizes the anti-British struggles. The discontent lying in the heart and minds of Indians came out in the open street.
- The non-cooperation movement (NCM) transformed Indian National Congress (INC) into a true organization of masses. It was no longer an assembly of elites.
- The fear of British rule got erased from the heart and mind of the common masses when people came out to participate in the national struggle. They could see the helplessness of the British in front of Gandhiji with their own eyes. Every Indian felt emboldened.
- The non-cooperation movement (NCM) played an important role in the liberation of women because a large number of Indian women came out of their houses to participate in the anti-British struggle at one call of Gandhiji. Their active participation in national struggle paved the way for change in the social outlook.
- The geographical spread of the Nationalist struggle took place in the non-cooperation movement (NCM) in the true sense. It was the first Pan India Movement in the true sense. The urban classes, as well as villages, participated in the non-cooperation movement.
- The non-cooperation movement (NCM) gave new aims and objectives to the national struggle. The aim of Swaraj was Defined by Gandhiji at the Nagpur session of Congress in December 1920. He explained Swaraj as self-rule within British Empire if possible and outside if necessary.
- New methods of struggle also became part of the moment during the non-cooperation movement (NCM). Resignation from government services, the boycott of hospitals, courts, and peaceful Court arrest were some of the new methods used by Nationalists during the non-cooperation movement.
- The launching of the non-cooperation movement (NCM) raised the hopes and aspirations of Indians enormously. In December 1920, when Gandhiji promise Swaraj within one year, the atmosphere of gloom at hopelessness prevailing in India got to transform into an atmosphere of excitement of freedom.
- Every Indian felt that the days of British rule are over. The people sense freedom and they took pride in that freedom during the Non-cooperation movement. The people lived in a kind of intoxication during NCM because the promise of Gandhiji gives them new hope.
This hope got shattered and excitement got transformed into disillusionment when the non-cooperation movement (NCM) was withdrawn by Gandhiji suddenly on 12 February 1922 as a result of the Chauri Chaura incident that took place on 5th February 1922. Many leaders begin to question the efficacy of Gandhian methods of struggle. They lost faith in the ideas of Mahatma Gandhi. Their disillusionment was responsible for the emergence of the Swarajist in 1923.